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What makes a wireless microphone system?
A wireless microphone system consists of three main parts: an input device, a transmitter, and a receiver.
The input device provides an audio signal that can be emitted by the transmitter, which is the microphone portion. It can be a handheld microphone or a "tie clip" microphone. For wireless systems designed specifically for electric guitars, electric guitars are themselves input devices.
The transmitter converts the audio signal into a radio frequency signal and broadcasts it through the antenna. The antenna can extend from the bottom of the transmitter, or it can be hidden. The strength of the RF signal is restricted by each country. The effective distance that signals can be transmitted is between 30m and 400m, depending on the conditions of use.
There are two basic types of transmitters. One is called a "belt-type" transmitter, which is the size of a pack of cigarettes and can be clipped to a belt. When used on musical instruments, the transmitter can often be stuck on the instrument's strap or directly on the trumpet or saxophone. The other type is used for handheld wireless microphones, whose transmitter is built into the handle of the microphone, so that the size of the wireless microphone is only a little larger than a standard wired microphone. In general, there are many kinds of "microphones" for handheld wireless microphones. All wireless transmitters require a battery, usually a 9-volt alkaline battery.
The receiver is to receive the radio frequency signal broadcast by the transmitter and convert it into an audio signal. The output of the receiver is electrically consistent with a standard microphone signal and can be connected to the microphone input port in a sound system.
Wireless receivers come in two different configurations. The single-antenna receiver uses a receiving antenna and a tuner, which is the same as a tuner-frequency radio. Single-antenna receivers work well in many situations, but occasionally signal interruptions occur when users walk around the room.
Multi-antenna receivers usually have better wireless reception performance. It uses two separate antennas and two independent tuners. A smart circuit in the receiver will automatically select a better signal or combine the two signals into one. Since one of the antennas can receive a clean signal at any time, the chance of signal interruption is much less.
Most wireless receivers operate on AC power, but some models installed on video cameras can be powered by batteries.