What are full frequency speakers, sub frequency speakers and coaxial speakers?

What are full frequency speakers, sub frequency speakers and coaxial speakers?

Summary

In the speaker system, speakers are mainly divided into two categories, one is a full-range speaker, and the other is a crossover speaker. So what exactly is a full-range speaker? What is a crossover speaker? What are their pros and cons and differences?

What are full-range speakers, crossover speakers, and coaxial speakers? (what are their advantages and disadvantages?)

In the speaker system, speakers are mainly divided into two categories, one is a full-range speaker, and the other is a crossover speaker. So what exactly is a full-range speaker? What is a crossover speaker? What are their pros and cons and differences?

What is a full range speaker?

Full-range speaker: It is a speaker made of only one full-range speaker. There is only one speaker. In fact, it is impossible for one speaker to cover all frequency bands. Generally speaking, full frequency is actually broadband, that is, the frequency range is relatively wide. The previous full frequency speakers covered the frequency range of 200-10000Hz. In recent years, with the continuous progress of acoustic technology, the general full-range speakers can now reach the frequency range of 50-25000Hz, and the low frequency of some speakers can go down to 30Hz.

 

The frequency range that the human ear can hear is 20-20000Hz, and the full-range speaker can basically cover all the frequencies that the human ear can hear. Unfortunately, the current full-range speakers on the market, although they are Full-frequency, in fact, most of its frequencies are concentrated in the mid-frequency range, and the expressiveness of heavy bass and treble is slightly weaker, so the sound heard is relatively flat, and the three-dimensional effect is not so strong.


Full-range speaker features/advantages: point sound source, so the phase is accurate; the timbre of each frequency band tends to be consistent, which is easy to bring better sound field, image resolution, instrument separation and level. Due to the strong expressiveness in the mid-frequency stage, it happens that most of the sounds made by people are mainly in the mid-frequency, so the full-frequency speakers are very suitable for listening to human voices, and the distortion rate of the in-ear is low, and the performance of the human voice is quite full and natural.

 

Disadvantages of full-range speakers: Because of the design to meet the needs of different frequency bands, the design and final performance of each frequency band will be constrained. The extension at both ends of the high and low frequencies is relatively limited, and the transients and dynamics are relatively discounted.

What is a crossover speaker?

Crossover speaker means that its frequency range is staged, and the signal frequency is more focused. Crossover speakers are usually built-in dual-band speakers or three-band speakers or more. Why is the frequency of the crossover speaker more focused? In addition to the number of speakers, there is a crossover in the crossover speaker, so how does the crossover work? Take the three-way speaker as an example, this crossover can send the bass part to the woofer that is responsible for low frequencies, the midrange is sent to the midrange speaker, and the treble is sent to the tweeter. In this way, each speaker performs its own duties and exerts its own advantages, which can make the extension of high and low frequency wider, so it can usually cover a wider frequency range than full-range speakers.

 

Crossover speaker features/advantages: Each frequency band is sounded by an independent unit, so each unit can work in the best state. The extension of high and low frequencies is easier to achieve better, the independent intermediate frequency unit can bring extremely high playback quality, and the overall electro-acoustic conversion efficiency is high.

 

Disadvantages of crossover speakers: Since there are many units in crossover speakers, there is a certain timbre difference and phase difference between them. Then, the crossover network introduces new distortion to the system. The sound field, image resolution, separation and layers will be more easily affected, the sound field of the sound is not so pure, and the overall timbre will also be deviated.

What is a coaxial speaker?

Coaxial speaker: It is a special form of crossover speaker. The tweeter of the speaker is cleverly placed in the center of the mid-bass diaphragm, so that the mid-bass unit and the tweeter are located on the same axis, and the front looks like two concentric circles. Therefore, it can ensure that the acoustic center of the high and low frequencies is the same point, so it is called a coaxial speaker. We often hear friends confuse coaxial speakers with full-range speakers. Of course, these two speakers have something in common, they both build a point sound source. However, the structure of the coaxial speakers is different. The two speakers are in a frequency division state, and they have their own division of labor, responsible for the operation of the treble and mid-bass respectively.


Features/advantages of coaxial speakers: The design structure and form of coaxial speakers can really be said to be painstaking efforts. It not only has the characteristics of high phase fidelity of full-range speakers, but also realizes the output of more natural sound in the form of standard point sound source. At the same time, in terms of hearing, it also has the powerful expressive power of crossover speakers in high and low bass. The bass is realistic and cohesive, the energy density is large, and the transient is better able to be collected and released, making the sound level more distinct and the sense of detail more prominent.

Disadvantages of coaxial speaker: Although the coaxial speaker has so many advantages, it also has defects, because its high and low voice coils share the same axis and share the same magnetic circuit, so the two voice coils will interfere with each other. It may cause the two voice coils to not move correctly, making the sound less smooth and balanced. Although the coaxial speaker solves the problem of phase fidelity, its voice performance has not been better improved. Other shortcomings of its common frequency division speaker still exist in the coaxial speaker.